Example 2

Does the Pink Bunny Really Last Forever?

Tori Adams

2006-2007 Lincoln Lutheran Science Fair

Junior High Division









    TABLE OF CONTENTS

The Abstract

I. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………….1

II. Problem………………………………………………………………………………...…1

III. Related Research……………………………………………………………..................1-4

IV. Hypothesis………………………………………………………………………...............4

V. Basis for Hypothesis………………………………………………………………………4

VI. Procedure……………………………………………………………………………….4-5

VII. Manipulated Variables……………………………………...…………………………….5

VIII. Control Samples…………………………………………………………………………...5

IX. Constants…………………………………………………………………………………..5

X. Number of Trials…………………………………………………………………………..5

XI. Number of Test Samples………………………………………………………………….5

XII. Obstacles, Challenges, and Design Changes……………………………………………....6

XII. Raw Data and/or Observations……………….……………………………………………7

XVI. Organized Data……………………………………………………………………………7

XV. Conclusion………………………………………………………………….……………...7

XVI. Basis for Conclusion………………………………………………………………………7

XVII. Unwanted Data………………………………………………………………………….7-8

XVIII. Application………………………………………………………………………….…......8

XIX. Closing Summary…………………………………………………………………………8

XX. Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………….9

XXI. Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………….…...10

 

 

 

 

 

 

TORI ADAMS

7th GRADE

5830 S. 32ND ST.

LINCOLN LUTHERAN

MRS. PINKALL

Does the Pink Bunny Really Last Forever?

My project is about the lives of different brands of batteries. I am figuring out which brand of batteries lasts longer after being on for a period of time. My hypothesis is if the life of batteries is related the brand, then I believe that Energizer Batteries will last longer than all the other brands.

For my procedure I bought 3 brands of batteries and one flashlight. I put in one brand of batteries and let them run until they were dead. When they were dead I put another brand of batteries into the flashlight. During this time I was charting how many hours/minutes that brand lasted. I repeated this procedure until all of the brands had run dead. I tested my hypothesis one time.

My hypothesis was supported, I tested three brands of batteries and Energizer Batteries lasted longer than the other brands that were tested. Duracell was the first brand I tested, it lasted nineteen hours and thirty minutes. Alkaline was the second brand that I tested, it lasted eleven hours and fifty minutes. Energizer was the last brand that I tested, and it lasted twenty-three hours.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    1. Introduction

    Have you ever had a moment when you really need some batteries and the only ones that you have are dead? Different brands of batteries have different amounts of “juice” or power. This also means that different brands might last longer than others. My experiment will help you figure out which brand of batteries lasts longer when being used for a certain period of time. I got this idea from my parents and my brother. My parents tried to help me find an idea that I would like to do for the Science Fair, and we looked at many resources. The idea of doing something with batteries kind of came from my brother, because he also based his Science Fair project on batteries. After my dad suggested finding out what brand of batteries lasts longer, I decided to do my experiment about battery life.

    1. Problem

    Which brand of batteries lasts longer, after being on in a flashlight for a certain period of time?

    1. Related Research

    A battery is basically a can full of chemicals that produce electrons. The official definition is two or more electric cells connected together. The chemical reactions that occur, which produce electrons are called electrochemical reactions. Every battery you would look at will have two terminals. One terminal is marked positive (+) and the other terminal is marked negative (-). Normally, the end of the battery is where the terminals are placed, for example in AA, C, and D batteries. However, in large car batteries they’re two heavy lead posts that act as terminals.

    Electrons collect or group together on the negative terminal. If a wire is connected between the negative terminal and the positive terminal, the electrons will flow from the negative terminal to the positive terminal as fast as they can, which can wear out the battery quickly. If this happens it can be very dangerous so you do not want to be doing it. You should connect some type of load to the battery using the wire; examples of this can be anything, a light bulb, a type of motor, or just a radio.

    You know how electrons are produced, but the speed of the electron production by this chemical reaction controls how many electrons can flow between the two terminals, this is called internal resistance. For a chemical reaction to take place electrons must travel from the negative terminal to positive terminal. This is why batteries can sit on a shelf for over a year and still have all of its power-unless electrons are flowing from the negative terminal to positive terminal no power is being used. Once you connect a wire to the battery the reaction starts.

    Flashlights have seven main components that make it work. (How Flashlights Work, 2006) The tube which houses the components of the flashlight, the batteries, and the light bulb, is the case. A very thin spring or strip of metal, which is usually copper or brass, is called the contacts. It is located throughout the flashlight, which makes the electrical connection between the batteries, the light bulb, and the switch; this is the part that “hooks everything up”. So the contacts are what complete the circuit. The switch, when pushed to the ON position, the electric flow is activated. When that is activated it gives you light. When the switch is pushed to the OFF position the flow of electricity is broke. When that happens the light is turned off. The reflector is a piece of plastic that is coated with a shiny aluminum layer, which rests around the light bulb. It redirects the light rays to allow a steady beam of light from the light bulb, this is the light that we see coming from the flashlight. The lamp is also known as the light bulb, it is the light source in the flashlight. It contains a tungsten filament which glows when electricity goes through it, thus producing visible light. Tungsten filament is a thin wire and tungsten is natural element. The lens is a clear plastic part made to protect the lamp and placed on the front of the flashlight. When the batteries are activated they are the power source for your flashlight. (How Flashlights Work, 2006)

    How does this all fit together to turn the flashlight on? When the switch of a flashlight is flipped to the ON position, it results in contact between two contact strips; this begins the flow of electricity, which is powered from the battery. The batteries are connected in such a way that the flow of electrons (electricity) runs between the positive and negative electrodes of the battery. The contact strip runs down the whole length of the case of the battery and makes contact with one of the sides of the switch. There is also one other flat contact strip in the opposite side of the switch, this happens to run to the lamp or light bulb, which provides an electrical connection. There is another contact that is connected to the light bulb which makes contact with the positive electrode of the top battery; this completes the circuit to the lamp and completing the generation of electricity. When the tungsten filament in the lamp is activated it begins to shine, which produces the light that is visible. The light that is produced reflects off of the reflector that is placed around the light bulb. The reflector redirects the light rays from the lamp, which creates a steady beam of light, which is the light you see coming from the flashlight. A clear lens covers the light bulb on your flashlight so that the glass on the lamp does not get broken. When the switch on the flashlight is moved to the OFF position, the two contact strips are physically separated and the electrical current is broken, this ends the production of light, and it turns off your flashlight.

    All of the components above have to be connected and they must be in the correct place for the flashlight to work properly. If they are not connected correctly you have an open circuit and the electricity will not flow.

    1. Hypothesis

    If the life of batteries is related to the brand, then I believe that Energizer Batteries will last longer than all the other brands.

    1. Basis For Hypothesis

    I believe my hypothesis is correct because most firefighters use Energizer batteries for their walkie talkies and most ambulances use Energizer batteries for all of their equipment. The pink bunny also says “Energizer keeps going and going and going…”

    1. Procedure
    1. Gather batteries (Energizer, Duracell, Rayovac and/or Alkaline) (You may substitute)
    1. Get ONE flashlight
    2. Get a notebook to chart down how many hours/minutes the batteries have lasted (Ex. 27 hours 51 minutes)
    3. Get your flashlight and put one brand of batteries in it (they don’t have to be in any certain order)
    4. Turn the flashlight on and leave it on for about one day without turning it off, but keep checking it just to make sure they did not run out (they should not, but just in case they do, check them every now and then)
    5. After they have been on for about one day start turning them off when you are not going to be home (if you are not home and the batteries run out you will not know when they went out, so it is more of an accuracy thing)
    6. Once the first brand of batteries have become completely dead, put the second brand in the flashlight and repeat the process (do this with all of the other brands as well)
    7. Make your conclusion about the brands of batteries and what you have seen happen and what brand lasts longer.


    • VII. Manipulated Variables

    The manipulated variable in my project is the different brands of batteries. (Duracell, Energizer, Alkaline)

    • VIII. Control Samples

    I do not have a control sample, because there is no normal way to compare the life of batteries.

    • IX. Constants

    The constants in my project are my flashlight and the size of the batteries (D).

    • X. Number of Trials

    I tested my hypothesis one time.

    • XI. Number of Test Samples

    I tested three brands of batteries; the different brands are Duracell, Energizer, and Alkaline.

    • XII. Obstacles, Challenges, and Design Changes

    When I first started my project, the yellow flashlight I was using turned out to have a bad part, so I concluded that my data was inaccurate, and had to begin using a new flashlight. I had already tested the Duracell and was in the middle of the Alkaline test when the flashlight turned off after two hours. I thought that even though I was testing an off brand of battery that it should have lasted longer than two hours. I had my grandpa look over the flashlight and he determined there was a bad part.

    I then had to change my procedure, and I used the same set of batteries (Alkaline) in a new blue flashlight and they continued to stay on for an additional 10 hours and 39 minutes. Because of the timing, I now only had enough time to test my hypothesis once, but I had planned to test it twice.

    I purchased a new set of Duracell and Alkaline batteries, and began testing with the blue flashlight. I used the Duracell batteries first because I kind of new that this brand would take longer to run out and then I could compare the new minutes with the old minutes to see if my data was on track, even though we determined there was a bad part in the yellow flashlight. I still felt with the amount of time (27hrs. /51min.) the first test lasted that the data could have been accurate. After completing the second Duracell battery test in the blue flashlight, I was surprised that the amount of time was less than the first test.

    Next I tested the Alkaline batteries, and I was disappointed because again the second test did not last as long as the first; however the amount of time was at least comparable. The first test time was combined to equal 12 hours and 55 minutes, and the second test lasted 11 hours and 50 minutes.

    1. Raw Data and/or Observations
      • Brands of Batteries Hours and Minutes Lasted
        Duracell Nineteen hours and thirty minutes
        Alkaline Eleven hours and fifty minutes
        Energizer Twenty-three hours


    1. Organized Data

    (See back page, where graph is attached.)

    1. Conclusion

    In conclusion, my hypothesis was supported because Energizer batteries lasted longer than the other brands that were tested.

    1. Basis for Conclusion

    I arrived at this conclusion because Energizer batteries lasted for 23 hours, and the other two brands lasted less than 23 hours.

    1. Unwanted Data - Influencing Factors

    I could not control the fact that I was using a bad flashlight for my first two battery tests. Because of the amount of time these two tests took, I had to eliminate the second trial. This factor did not influence my results but instead helped me to see the amount of time the batteries were lasting was comparable data.

    XVIII.Application

    This was a very practical test to prove to society that even though off brand batteries do not cost as much they also do not last as long. If you want the best value for your money, we should purchase a name